Cow Diseases That Affect Cattle
These cow diseases affect cattle in many ways. Listed below are some common forms of these diseases. Some cases are severe and may require long-term treatment. Read on to learn about Brucellosis, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Lonorchiasis, and upper intestinal erosive syndrome.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects cattle. It is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. It was first detected in the UK in 1986, but it has since spread to other countries. The UK saw its highest incidence during the epidemic of 1986-1992, after which controls were put in place to limit the use of organic solvents in meat and bone meal. After the ban on the use of organic solvents in the meat and bone meal in 1992, annual cases decreased to less than ten cases. However, in 2002-2006, BSE cases increased in many European countries, and in Japan, the disease has been identified in humans.
BSE is caused by exposure to prion proteins in the diet of infected cattle. The prion protein is called a prion because it causes protein misfolding and aggregation. Prions can be passed from one animal to another, and they are resistant to disinfectant treatments. The classical form of the disease is caused by infectious prions, but the condition has also been known to occur in atypical BSE, which is caused by non-infectious cattle.
Because of the increased risk of BSE, several countries have banned the consumption of cattle over 24 months old. Although there have been no cases of vCJD in laboratory workers, appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling BSE agent or performing necropsies of cattle that may be infected with BSE. The aim of the safety measures should be to prevent accidental exposures.
A novel variant of the BSE virus known as vCJD has been found in cattle. It was first detected in Great Britain and was associated with the emergence of the BSE agent. The disease has since spread to France and Italy. A case of vCJD was also detected in the United States. The patient was a recent immigrant from the UK.
Lonorchiasis is primarily a problem for low and middle-income countries in Asia. It causes serious economic, medical, and social problems. It is estimated that the disease affects 275 million people worldwide, results in 5 591 deaths every year, and causes severe disabilities in both humans and livestock. It also causes liver disease, gallstones, and cholecystitis.
People who eat raw fish, live in humid areas, and work in the farming industry are more likely to contract clonorchiasis. The disease is also more severe in older people. Moreover, the disease is more common in farmers, fishermen, businessmen, and catering staff.
Mass chemotherapy using PZQ has been implemented in several endemic countries and has shown promising results. Combined with health education, chemotherapy can successfully control clonorchiasis. This treatment method reduces the incidence of the disease and increases the chances of treatment success. However, despite the advances made, many endemic areas remain plagued with high infection rates.
In addition to its endemicity, clonorchiasis is also very prevalent in non-endemic countries. It has been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked fish, including shrimp from countries affected by the disease. The disease is a growing threat to both people and livestock.
However, the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis is still largely unknown. This uncertainty hinders the development of effective prevention and control strategies. In the meantime, it is important to understand the mechanism that leads to the development of the disease. This way, a more effective treatment can be developed.
Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent the disease in humans. However, the disease can be controlled by health education, mass chemotherapy, and community awareness.
Upper alimentary ulcerative syndrome
Upper alimentary ulcerative syndrome (UAUS) is a condition characterized by ulcerative lesions on the oesophagus and is a rare, but serious, animal health problem. The causes of the syndrome are unknown, but it has been identified in cows in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. The syndrome usually occurs between the months of February and July and generally affects calves that have been weaned. It is often accompanied by enteritis and weight loss.
The disease is usually subclinical, with no obvious clinical signs, or it may occur as a complication of another disease. Symptomatic treatment is centered on correcting dietary deficiencies, managing concurrent conditions, and preventing or reducing stress in the animals. Antibiotics, antacids, and H-alpha blockers are ineffective in treating this disease.
Early treatment of this disease is important for the survival of the cow. If left untreated, the disease can recur. Treatment is usually conservative, but surgery is sometimes necessary in extreme cases. Surgical correction is the first option if it is cost-effective. However, many cows with this condition will recur despite conservative treatment.
In severe cases, the disease may cause the animal to die within 24 hours. It can also cause significant loss of milk yield. It can also cause the animal to become anorexic or debilitated, which can compromise its cardiovascular function. In chronic cases, the disease may lead to the rupture of lymph nodes, leading to thin yellowish pus discharge.
Upper alimentary ulcerative syndrome in cows can lead to death. The disease usually develops within two to three days after the initial exposure. Symptoms in susceptible animals include abdominal distension, unsteadiness, and drooling of saliva.
In Tajikistan, a study has identified factors associated with brucellosis in cattle. Although cattle in Tajikistan are not vaccinated against the disease, seropositivity was found in some cases. The infection was considered to be caused by natural exposure. The study also found that brucellosis was present in small and large herds. This is not the first study to identify this disease in Tajik cattle, which is common in urban and peri-urban areas.
There are many methods for detecting brucellosis in cattle, including molecular tests and serological tests. However, a broad spectrum vaccine is needed to prevent the spread of the disease. The disease is difficult to eradicate, but a multi-pronged approach is required.
Unlike cows, camels are not immune to the disease and thus do not show signs of it. In fact, a large number of camels are involved in subsistence farming in the Saharan region. The South of Morocco is home to a significant population of camels, although only one study has reported detection of Brucella abortus in camels. While camel serology is not very sensitive at distinguishing Brucella species, it has been shown that abortions in infected herds have been associated with brucellosis.
The serological tests used for brucellosis in cattle have not been as effective as those used for human infection. The disease has been in existence for more than 20 years before authorities realised it had spread to Australia. However, there are now regulations to ensure that cattle imported from endemic regions are free of the disease. These include the CFT and the RBT. While neither of these tests has 100% sensitivity, they are useful for acute infections, particularly in emergency departments.
There are a limited number of cases of brucellosis in cattle. However, it is an important disease, affecting cattle and camels in different geographical regions. Although brucellosis is not prevalent in most areas of the world, it is often underreported, particularly in the African continent.
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis. This bacteria is spread through respiratory secretions and ingestion. It can develop into an advanced disease over several years, depending on the immune system of the infected cow. The disease typically causes chronic deterioration of the organs. The disease is often silent until the animal begins to display symptoms, which include a chronic hacking cough and weight loss. In addition, the animal may have lymphadenopathy and diarrhea.
Cattle may contract TB if they eat raw dairy products from infected cows. In addition, calves can become infected through contact with cow tissues or colostrum. Humans can also contract the disease by handling infected cattle at slaughterhouses. It is important to remember that infected cows can shed bacteria long before they show clinical signs. This is the main reason that the disease can be spread among domestic animals.
In the early twentieth century, the disease caused almost 200 deaths in the U.S. per year. Of these, six to 30 percent were caused by M. bovis, which was contracted through infected milk. Due to the introduction of pasteurized milk and the Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Program, the prevalence of M. bovis fell significantly. The mortality rate was further decreased by six percent per year after the introduction of effective antituberculous drugs.
Currently, there is no specific cure for bovine tuberculosis. But, it is possible to prevent the spread of the disease by making sure the cattle are tested. Testing can be required by buyers before purchasing cattle. While this isn’t a guarantee, it does help to minimize the risk of transmission between cattle and people.