What Factors Led to the Rise of National Economy?
Depressions and recessions
Recessions and depressions are periods of decreased economic activity. They have similar starting and ending dates but can be much longer or shorter than normal business cycles. Typically, an economic depression is characterized by a large rise in unemployment and fall in credit availability. Recessions also affect international trade significantly and result in significant reductions in national output.
Recessions can last for as long as a year and result in significant output costs. On average, recessions lead to a two to five-percent decline in GDP. Although the decrease in consumption is generally small, the fall in investment and industrial production is significant. Moreover, recessions often overlap with drop in international trade and turmoil in financial markets.
When the economy is stable, it can recover from recessions by producing goods and services. The stability of a country’s economy depends on several factors, including armed conflicts, health crises, and market trends and consumer confidence. Throughout history, many recessions and depressions have taken place, harming the economy and people’s lives. Although governments try to avoid economic downturns, many of them are unavoidable.
One of the most important factors in predicting a recession or depression is the stock market. Share prices of public companies are sensitive to the health of the economy, and a collapse in the stock market is a sign of declining investor confidence. In addition, businesses depend on consumer demand for their products to survive. If demand declines for long periods, manufacturing orders may be affected, which can lead to a recession or depression.
Growing public sector intervention
Growing public sector intervention in national economies has been a primary driver of growth. These interventions have a number of benefits. For example, they can improve government institutions and foster innovation. Governments in high-growth countries are more willing to experiment and try new approaches to improve the functioning of the public sector. They often use pilot programs to test new ideas and scale them up if they prove to be effective.
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) constitute a large portion of most economies. They are often the backbone of local economies and create a stable middle class. In this age of decentralisation, government agencies can help local communities maximise growth and fulfill their needs. This can help free up resources from the central government to support local institutions. This can lead to the growth of local and regional economies and the creation of cottage industries.
Historically, governments have operated in silos, often in conflict with each other. This has resulted in national economies that are neither inclusive nor sustainable. Today, public and private sector leaders must collaborate in a more seamless manner. Together, they can create stronger and more inclusive societies. In fact, this type of collaboration is essential for sustainable growth.
While the national government is the main force in economic management, the long-term goal is for economic power to be exercised by all sections of society. In the future, the most important levels for development will be the personal, household, and community levels. Eventually, the role of the national government will be relegated to safety-net support for local services.
After the 1970s, national economies in the non-oil producing world experienced a sharp rise in consumer prices, mainly due to the rising prices of primary products and oil. This caused a rise in the cost of most goods, including food. In addition, wages and public utility rates rose sharply. The rate of inflation reached a high of 12.5% in the early 1980s, but the pace of inflation slowed down significantly in the following years. Although the United States and other developed countries experienced persistent inflation, the rise in prices slowed and many economies such as Britain and Chile exhibited high wage increases.
The rapid increase in prices has caused policymakers to search for solutions to address the underlying causes of the trend. Inflationary pressures have been driven by rising energy prices, supply chain bottlenecks, and heightened consumer demand. Historically, the policy response has been to increase interest rates. However, this strategy carries risks of creating a recession.
The development of anti-inflation measures has also been a key part of the policy process in the developed world. Various tight-money measures were introduced, such as raising official discount rates, in an attempt to reduce inflation. The government sector also began to implement more policies to promote investment and higher productivity.
The rise of national economies is often attributed to the demographics of countries. According to economists, demographics has a profound effect on national economic growth and development. Demographic trajectories vary across countries, but generally respond to economic incentives, policy reforms, and cultural norms. These changes are particularly significant as the world population is aging.
Demographic trends influence underlying growth rates, productivity growth, and living standards. They also affect investment decisions, long-run unemployment rates, and equilibrium interest rates. Similarly, differences in demographic trends affect currency exchange rates, current account balances, and housing markets. While economics has always focused on cyclical trends, demographics are an important component of understanding the economy.
Demographic changes have also impacted the transmission mechanism of monetary policy. Wealth effects have a greater impact on transmission than income effects. Older people tend to accumulate more assets and are often creditors. Moreover, they draw on their assets to meet their living expenses during retirement. On the other hand, younger people are borrowers and have tighter credit constraints. This shift in demographics can significantly alter the propagation of changes in interest rates.
In the twentieth century, global per capita income was nearly doubled, life expectancy was increased by 16 years, and primary school enrollment was nearly universal. With this rapid growth in population, nations face daunting challenges in coping with the additional demands for food, housing, education, infrastructure, and employment. Although global population growth has been slowing in recent decades, the statewide rate of population growth is still a concern.
During the post-World War II era, economic nationalism reached its height. Its goal was to protect the national economy and workers from foreign competition. Economic nationalism was also associated with restrictions on trade and investment and an opposition to globalization. Today, economic nationalism is a growing political phenomenon in many countries.
Economic nationalism has also been associated with immigration. Some senators, such as David Perdue (R-GA), claim that immigration has harmed U.S. workers and has led to a supply of labor. However, a recent study by the National Academy of Sciences found that immigration does not decrease wages for natives. The study examined the impact of immigrants on the wages of high school dropouts.
Despite its popularity, economic nationalism is not well understood by scholars. Its original theorists – the mercantilists – thought that trade maximized state wealth and power by allowing states to accumulate gold and silver, build war industries, and more. They believed that dominating the rivalry would lead to greater prosperity for the state. Adam Smith, however, was the first to question their wisdom.
Recent nationalist sentiments have conformed to Gellner’s theory, combining nationalism and class. It also follows Meyer’s model, which focuses on the economic security of national citizens. Nationalist sentiment has always played an important role in the development of economies. In recent years, elites have sought to reinvigorate nationalism as a driving force in the economy.