Lyme Disease Vaccine For Humans – A Closer Look
The Pfizer lyme disease vaccine targets outer surface protein A of Borrelia burgdorferi. This protein triggers an immune response to a tick bite and is supposed to prevent chronic Lyme disease symptoms. However, there are many concerns. Let’s take a closer look at this vaccine and the potential risks.
Pfizer’s lyme disease vaccine
Pfizer plans to conduct a clinical trial of its Lyme disease vaccine for humans. The company hopes to submit an application to the FDA or EMEA in 2025. Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. It is increasing in prevalence and is a growing health concern across the country. According to the CDC, an estimated 476,000 Americans contract Lyme disease each year. The only vaccine currently available against the disease was discontinued in 2002.
The current human Lyme disease vaccine candidate, called VLA15, targets an outer surface protein of the Borrelia bacteria, and omits the portion of the protein responsible for adverse effects. It works similarly to the LYMERix vaccine, and has a generally acceptable safety profile.
Researchers are looking for volunteers to test the vaccine. The vaccine, developed by Pfizer and French biotech Valneva, induces antibodies in people that fight off the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. The trial will enroll approximately 6,000 healthy people in the U.S. and other countries with high incidences of Lyme disease. The vaccine will be administered in three doses and tested for effectiveness. It will then be given as a seasonal vaccine.
The lyme disease vaccine could receive approval from the FDA as early as 2025, if the clinical trial results are positive. Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Medical School are studying a human monoclonal antibody that would provide seasonal protection from the disease. A human trial is expected to start soon.
The development of a human Lyme disease vaccine is critical to preventing the disease and protecting people from the disease. According to the BMJ, the CDC estimates that 476,000 Americans contract the disease each year. The disease has also been identified as one of the most prevalent vector-borne illnesses in the Northern Hemisphere. It affects about 130,000 people in Europe.
Valneva SE and Pfizer recently announced a partnership to develop and commercialize their Lyme disease vaccine candidate VLA15. This collaboration will begin April 30.
Targets outer surface protein A of Borrelia burgdorferi
Lyme disease is caused by infection with the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The organism is found in the gut of ticks and undergoes replication and antigenic changes during engorgement. These adaptive changes occur in the gut, where the spirochetes are exposed to host-derived molecules in their blood meal and the antibodies of the host. In limited studies, these host antibodies have been effective in inhibiting transmission of the disease.
Lyme disease vaccination aims to target the outer surface protein A of the bacteria that causes the disease. The vaccine works by inducing antibodies in the human body that can block the bacterium from reproducing in ticks. The vaccine targets the outer surface protein A of Borrelia – a protein expressed by most bacteria in ticks. The vaccine has already been granted Fast Track designation by the FDA.
The vaccine is being trialed in up to 50 sites in the U.S. and in Europe. Trial participants will receive a protein subunit vaccine that targets outer surface protein A of Borrelia burgdorferi. The vaccine targets the outer surface protein A of Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria, a protein expressed by ticks. Blocking this protein prevents the bacteria from leaving the tick.
The vaccine is also being evaluated for sensitivity by evaluating if the immune response is positive. Ideally, the vaccine would be highly specific and sensitive enough to detect infection in humans. It would be particularly helpful in early stage disease, where the symptoms are not yet apparent.
The OspC1 peptide binds serum antibodies from individuals with early Lyme disease and sera from healthy people. Sera from patients with Lyme disease who were treated with the OspC1 vaccine showed elevated levels of the antibodies in this test.
The OspC1 peptide has desirable characteristics for the development of a serological assay. It is derived from the principal virulence factor in mammalian infections and is expressed early in the infection, allowing for an immune response. Furthermore, it identifies a large proportion of early disease in humans. It is therefore a promising candidate for a multipeptide diagnostic assay.
Induces immune response in response to a tick bite
A tick bite can induce a strong innate immune response, which includes the infiltration of neutrophils, dendritic cells, and mononuclear cells in the skin. This initial response then leads to the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, after 24 hours, the primary inflammatory response is weakened and an adaptive immune response begins to develop. This response helps to fight the pathogens that the ticks carry.
Incubation of tick saliva results in an increase in Th2 cytokines and a decrease in Th1 cytokines. This Th2-promoting effect is enhanced with longer exposure to tick saliva, facilitating transmission of the pathogens. Nevertheless, suppression of Th1 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5, and the production of TNF-a and IL-10 decreases borrelial loads in susceptible mice.
In addition to these protective mechanisms, researchers are seeking to develop vaccines that can help protect people from tick-borne diseases. In humans, tick-borne diseases are a serious public health problem. Researchers have found that the immune response to multiple tick bites may result in tick-resistance, which decreases the number of engorged ticks and increases the survival rate of ticks during subsequent infestations.
Ticks are ectoparasites that feed on various vertebrate hosts and complete their life cycle. Humans are accidental hosts and thus, their bites are responsible for the transmission of various tick-borne diseases. The salivary glands of ticks contain proteins that suppress inflammatory responses and aid the parasite in feeding and transmitting pathogens.
In addition to the antigens in the salivary glands of ticks, IgE antibodies may be associated with allergy symptoms. Some researchers have discovered that IgE antibodies to tick salivary antigens can cause red meat allergy. However, the exact mechanisms involved in this process have not been fully characterized.
Salivary proteins, such as sialostatin L2, have the ability to modulate the immune response against tick bite by inhibiting cytokine secretion by dendritic cells. Moreover, tick salivary proteins also inhibit the activation of complement, an important defence mechanism in the body.
Tick immune systems have evolved elaborate mechanisms to interact with their hosts. These mechanisms play an important role in the control of B. burgdorferi. However, they are not capable of eliminating spirochaetes that are present in ticks. As such, there is a need for more studies to determine how these mechanisms function in the body.
Induces symptoms similar to chronic Lyme disease
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are an estimated 476,000 cases of Lyme disease in the United States each year. The disease is difficult to diagnose, and many people with symptoms may mistake them for other conditions. While the disease affects people of all ages, children, the elderly, and people who work outdoors (such as park rangers, firefighters, and hunters) are at high risk.
Chronic Lyme disease symptoms can erode a person’s quality of life and cause them to experience a host of mental health problems. The chronicity of symptoms can lead to problems with concentration and memory, which can affect a person’s overall mental health. Some people develop mood and personality disorders after acquiring this disease, including depression and anxiety. Other possible side effects of the disease include a heightened sensitivity to fluorescent lights and other types of noise.
Chronic Lyme disease is not a curable disease. Although most people recover from their symptoms, up to 10 percent may never be cured. This is known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The symptoms of PTLDS can include joint pain, fatigue, short-term memory loss, and confusion. The condition is difficult to diagnose because it shares symptoms with many other illnesses. There is no universal, standardized test for the condition. Experts don’t know why this happens, but one theory is that the body keeps fighting the infection and the symptoms don’t go away.
Most people who contract Lyme disease develop the symptoms within days to a few weeks of tick bite. They develop a red, round rash that can be up to 12 inches wide and is warm to the touch. Although the symptoms are usually mild, a few people develop severe symptoms if they go untreated. Typically, early treatment with antibiotics is the most effective way to prevent chronic Lyme disease.
Early-stage Lyme disease can cause nonspecific and virus-like symptoms, including fatigue, fever, joint pain, and swollen lymph nodes. These symptoms are not enough to diagnose Lyme disease, and a proper diagnosis should be made through a laboratory test. In the late stages of the disease, symptoms may not occur at all.